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PALEOSEISMOLOGY

The book PALEOSEISMOLOGY, edited by GEO-HAZ's President James P. McCalpin, has become the international standard reference in the field. First published in 1996 by Academic Press, the book was revised and enlarged in 2009 (2nd Edition by Elsevier Publishing). The Table of Contents is shown below.

paleoseismology-2nd-front-coverClick for larger imageMcCalpin, J.P. (ed.), 2009, Paleoseismology, 2nd Edition: International Geophysics Series, Vol. 95, Elsevier Publishing, 647 p. plus additional website content at www.elsevier.com ISBN 978-0-12-373576-8.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PALEOSEISMOLOGY (J.P. McCalpin, A.R. Nelson)

    1.1 THE SCOPE OF PALEOSEISMOLOGY
    1.1.1 Definition and Objectives
    1.1.2 Organization and Scope of This Book
    1.1.3 The Relation of Paleoseismology to Other Neotectonic Studies
    1.2 IDENTIFYING PREHISTORIC EARTHQUAKES FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EVIDENCE
    1.2.1 Classification of Paleoseismic Evidence
    1.2.2 The Incompleteness of the Paleoseismic Record
    1.2.3 Underrepresentation versus Overrepresentation of the Paleoseismic Record
    1.3 PREHISTORIC EARTHQUAKE DATING AND RECURRENCE
    1.3.1 Dating Accuracy and Precision and Their Relation to Recurrence
    1.3.2 Patterns in Recurrence
    1.4 ESTIMATING THE MAGNITUDE OF PREHISTORIC EARTHQUAKES
    1.5 THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF PALEOSEISMOLOGY, 1890-1980

CHAPTER 2A: FIELD TECHNIQUES IN PALEOSEISMOLOGY-- TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS (J.P. McCalpin)

    2A.1 INTRODUCTION
    2A.1.1 Scope of the Chapter
    2A.1.2 Preferred Sequence of Investigations
    2A.2 MAPPING PALEOSEISMIC LANDFORMS
    2A.2.1 Locating Surface Deformation
    2A.2.1.1 Database Query
    2A.2.1.2 Remote Sensing and Aerial Mapping
    2A.2.1.3 Aerial Reconnaissance
    2A.2.1.4 Field Inspection
    2A.2.1.5 Mapping Conventions
    2A.2.2 Mapping Deposits versus Landforms in Seismic Areas
    2A.2.3 Detailed Topographic Mapping
    2A.2.4 Topographic Profiling
    2A.2.4.1 Fault scarp profiling
    2A.2.4.2 Topographic riser profiling
    2A.2.5 Dating Methods for Late Quaternary Landforms
    2A.3 MAPPING PALEOSEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY
    2A.3.1 Geophysical Techniques in Paleoseismology
    2A.3.1.1 Seismic Methods
    2A.3.1.2 Ground-Penetrating Radar
    2A.3.1.3 Electrical Methods
    2A.3.1.4 Electromagnetic Methods
    2A.3.1.5 Magnetic Methods
    2A.3.1.6 Gravity Methods
    2A.3.2 Trenching
    2A.3.2.1 Location, Orientation, and Pattern of Trenches
    2A.3.2.2 Excavating the Trench
    2A.3.2.3 Dewatering the Trench
    2A.3.2.4 Trench Safety
    2A.3.2.5 Preparing for Logging
    2A.3.2.6 The Reference Grid
    2A.3.2.7 Identifying and Marking Contacts
    2A.3.2.8 Mapping Soil Horizons in Trenches
    2A.3.2.9 Defining and Labeling Map Units
    2A.3.2.10 The Problem of Fault Nonvisibility
    2A.3.2.11 Imaging the Trench Wall
    2A.3.2.12 Logging the Trench
    2A.3.2.13 Manipulating and Storing Digital Trench Data
    2A.3.3 Drilling, Coring, Slicing, and Peeling
    2A.3.3.1 Drilling
    2A.3.3.2 Coring
    2A.3.3.3 Slicing
    2A.3.3.4 Peeling
    2A.3.4 Dating Methods for Late Quaternary Deposits
    2A.4 DISTINGUISHING PALEOSEISMIC FEATURES FROM NON-SEISMIC OR NON-TECTONIC FEATURES
    2A.4.1 Special Case: Stable Continental Interiors
    2A.4.1.1 Unglaciated Continental Interiors
    2A.4.1.2 Formerly Glaciated Continental Interiors
    2A.5 SPECIALIZED SUBFIELDS OF PALEOSEISMOLOGY
    2A.5.1 Archaeoseismology
    2A.5.1.1 Phenomena Related to Faulting and Ground Rupture
    2A.5.1.2 Damage Related to Ground Shaking
    2A.5.2 Dendroseismology

CHAPTER 2B: SUB-AQUEOUS PALEOSEISMOLOGY (Chris Goldfinger)

    2B.1 INTRODUCTION
    2B.1.1 Scope of the Chapter
    2B.2 MAPPING AND DATING PALEOSEISMIC LANDFORMS OFFSHORE
    2B.2.1 Submarine Mapping and Imaging Methods
    2B.2.1.1 Seafloor Mapping Techniques
    2B.2.1.1.1 Multibeam Bathymetric Sonars
    2B.2.1.1.2 Sidescan Sonars
    2B.2.1.1.3 Seismic Reflection Profiling
    2B.2.1.2 Sampling Methods
    2B.2.1.2.1 Coring Tools
    2B.2.1.2.2 Drilling
    2B.2.2 Dating Submarine Structures, Landforms, and Deposits Using Paleoseismic Stratigraphy
    2B.2.2.1 Radiocarbon Dating
    2B.2.2.2 OxCal Analysis
    2B.2.2.3 Sedimentation Rate Ages
    2B.2.2.4 Event Ages and Potential Biases
    2B.2.2.5 210 Pb and 137Cs Activity
    2B.2.2.6 Bioturbation and its effect on radiocarbon dating of interseismic hemipelagic sediments
    2B.2.2.7 Stratigraphic Datum Ages
    2B.3 LOCATING PRIMARY EVIDENCE: ACTIVE FAUTING AND STRUCTURES
    2B.3.1 Direct Fault Investigations
    2B.3.1.1 Wecoma Fault, Cascadia Subduction Zone
    2B.3.1.2 Lake Tahoe, California
    2B.3.1.3 Palos Verdes Fault
    2B.3.1.4 San Clemente Fault, California
    2B.3.1.5 Marmara Sea
    2B.3.2 Off Fault Investigation
    2B.3.2.1 Vertical Tectonics in a Strike-Slip Setting: Channel Islands Thrust and the Catalina Ridge-San Clemente Fault Zone
    2B.4 LOCATING SECONDARY EVIDENCE: LANDSLIDES, TURBIDITES, SUBMARINE TSUNAMI DEPOSITS
    2B.4.1 Distinguishing Earthquake and Non-Earthquake Triggering Mechanisms
    2B.4.1.1 Sedimentological and Mineralogical Characteristics
    2B.4.1.2 Distinguishing Hyperpycnal Underflows
    2B.4.1.3 Synchronous Triggering
    2B.4.1.4 Numerical Coincidence and Relative Dating Tests
    2B.4.1.5 Stratigraphic Correlation
    2B.4.2 Turbidite Paleoseismology
    2B.4.2.1 Cascadia
    2B.4.2.2 Marmara Sea
    2B.4.2.3 Northern San Andreas Fault
    2B.4.2.4 Kurile Trench
    2B.4.2.5 Nankai Trough
    2B.4.2.6 Sumatra
    2B.4.3 Offshore Tsunami Deposits
    2B.4.4 Lacustrine Environments
    2B.4.4.1 Lacustrine Sediment Pulses Caused by Earthquake Generated Landslides
    2B.4.4.2 Landslide, Turbidite, and Tsunami Deposits in Lakes
    2B.4.4.2.1 Alpine Lakes
    2B.4.4.2.2 Coastal Lakes
    2B.4.4.2.3 Bradley Lake, Cascadia Margin
    2B.4.4.3 The Storegga Tsunami
    2B.4.5 Submarine Landslides Triggered by Earthquakes
    2B.4.6 Coeval Fault Motion and Fluid Venting Evidence

CHAPTER 3: PALEOSEISMOLOGY IN EXTENSIONAL TECTONIC ENVIRONMENTS (J.P. McCalpin)

    3.1 INTRODUCTION
    3.1.1 Styles, Scales, and Environments of Deformation
    3.1.1.1 Environments of extensional deformation
    3.1.1.2 Segmentation of normal faults
    3.1.2 The Earthquake Deformation Cycle in Extensional Environments
    3.1.3 Historic Analog Earthquakes
    3.2 GEOMORPHIC EVIDENCE OF PALEOEARTHQUAKES
    3.2.1 Tectonic Geomorphology of Normal Fault Blocks
    3.2.2 Features of Bedrock Fault Planes and Other Rock Surfaces
    3.2.3 Formation of Fault Scarps in Unconsolidated Deposits
    3.2.3.1 Terminology and Measurements of Normal Fault Scarps
    3.2.3.2 Simple scarps
    3.2.3.3 Scarps with back-tilting
    3.2.3.4 Scarps with graben
    3.2.3.5 Step faults
    3.2.3.6 Monoclinal scarps
    3.2.4 Degradation of Fault Scarps in Unconsolidated Deposits
    3.2.5 Spatial and Temporal Variations in Surface Displacement
    3.2.5.1 Variability of Displacement Along Strike In a Single Rupture
    3.2.5.2 Variability of Displacement At a Point
    3.2.6 Geomorphic Features Formed by Single and Recurrent Faulting
    3.2.6.1 Interaction of Fault Scarps with Geomorphic Surfaces
    3.2.6.2 Profile of a Compound Scarp
    3.3 STRATIGRAPHIC EVIDENCE OF PALEOEARTHQUAKES
    3.3.1 Characteristics of Near-Surface Normal Faults in Section
    3.3.1.1 Geometry of Faults
    3.3.1.2 Architecture of Faults in Section
    3.3.2 Distinguishing Tectonic from Depositional Features
    3.3.2.1 Fissures and Tension Cracks
    3.3.3 Sedimentation and Soil Formation in the Fault Zone
    3.3.3.1 The Colluvial Wedge Model
    3.3.3.1.1 Identifying a Colluvial Wedge
    3.3.3.2 Other Fault-Zone Facies
    3.3.3.2.1 The Eolian Deposition Model
    3.3.3.2.2 The Fissure-Graben Model
    3.3.3.3 Angular Unconformities in Fault Zones
    3.3.3.4 Difficult Paleoseismic Evidence: Small-Displacement Faulting at Long Recurrence Intervals
    3.3.3.5 Difficult Paleoseismic Evidence: Distributed Faulting On a Large Escarpment
    3.3.4 Measuring Displacement on Normal Fault Exposures
    3.3.4.1 Displacement Estimates from Colluvial Wedges
    3.3.4.2 Displacement Estimates in the Fissure-Graben and Eolian Models
    3.3.4.3 Displacements Reconstructed from Angular Unconformities
    3.3.5 Distinguishing Creep Displacement from Episodic Displacement
    3.4 DATING PALEOEARTHQUAKES
    3.4.1 Direct Dating of the Exposed Fault Plane
    3.4.2 Direct Dating via Scarp Degradation Modeling
    3.4.3 Age Estimates from Soil Development on Fault Scarps
    3.4.4 Bracketing the Age of Faulting by Dating Geomorphic Surfaces
    3.4.5 Bracketing the Age of Faulting by Dating Displaced Deposits
    3.4.6 Bracketing the Age of Faulting by Dating Colluvial Wedges
    3.4.6.1 Example of Detailed Dating
    3.4.7 Age Estimates from Cosmogenic Nuclides in Depth Profiles on Fault Scarps
    3.5 INTERPRETING THE PALEOSEISMIC HISTORY BY RETRODEFORMATION
    3.5.1 Types of Retrodeformations
    3.5.2 Assumptions Used When Restoring Strata to Their Pre-Faulting Geometry
    3.5.3 Accounting for Soil Formation in Retrodeformation
    3.6 DISTINGUISHING TECTONIC FROM NONTECTONIC NORMAL FAULTS
    3.6.1 Tectonic, But Nonseismogenic Normal Faults
    3.6.2 Nontectonic, But Seismogenic Normal Faults
    3.6.3 Nontectonic and Nonseismogenic Normal Faults
    3.6.3.1 Landslide Faults
    3.6.3.2 Sackung
    3.6.3.3 Subsidence/collapse Faults

CHAPTER 4: PALEOSEISMOLOGY OF VOLCANIC ENVIRONMENTS (S.J. Payne, W.R. Hackett, R.P. Smith)

    4.1 INTRODUCTION
    4.2 VOLCANO-EXTENSIONAL STRUCTURES
    4.2.1 Worldwide Examples of Volcano-Extensional Structures
    4.2.2 Central Volcanoes and Calderas
    4.2.3 Volcanic-Rift Zones
    4.2.4 Magma-Induced Slope Instability
    4.3 CRITERIA FOR FIELD RECOGNITION OF VOLCANO-EXTENSIONAL FEATURES
    4.3.1 Results of Empirical and Numerical Modeling
    4.3.2 Volcano-Tectonic Geomorphology
    4.3.3 Geophysical Methods
    4.3.4 Geodetic Remote-Sensing Techniques
    4.4 PALEOSEISMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS AND METHODS
    4.4.1 Excavation
    4.4.2 Geochronology
    4.4.3 Recurrence Intervals
    4.4.4 Maximum Magnitude
    4.4.4.1 Earthquakes Associated with Dike Intrusion
    4.4.4.2 Earthquakes at Calderas and Central Volcanoes
    4.4.4.3 Tectonic Earthquakes Induced by Magmatic Processes
    4.4.4.4 Comparison of Moment-Magnitude Calculations to Observational Seismicity
    4.5 CONCLUSIONS
    Information on DVD-ROM
    Acknowledgments

CHAPTER 5: PALEOSEISMOLOGY OF COMPRESSIONAL TECTONIC ENVIRONMENTS (J.P. McCalpin, G.A. Carver)

    5.1 Introduction
    5.1.1 Organization of This Chapter
    5.1.2 Styles, Scales, and Environments of Deformation
    5.1.2.1 Terrestrial Environments of Compressional Deformation
    5.1.2.2 General Style of Deformation in Compressional Zones
    5.1.2.3 Reverse faults Expressed by Surface Folds
    5.1.2.4 Segmentation of Reverse Faults
    5.1.3 The Earthquake Deformation Cycle of Reverse Faults
    5.1.4 Historic Analog Earthquakes
    5.2 Geomorphic Evidence of Reverse Paleoearthquakes
    5.2.1 Initial Morphology of Reverse and Thrust Fault Scarps
    5.2.2 Degradation of Thrust Fault Scarps
    5.2.3 Interaction of Thrust Fault Scarps with Geomorphic Surfaces
    5.2.3.1 Fluvial Terraces
    5.2.3.2 Marine Terraces
    5.2.3.3 Coseismic Terraces
    5.2.4 Slip Rate Studies
    5.2.5 Spatial and Temporal Variations in Surface Displacement
    5.2.5.1 Variability of Displacement Along Strike in a Single Rupture
    5.2.5.2 Variability in Displacement at a Point
    5.3 Stratigraphic Evidence of Reverse and Thrust Paleoearthquakes
    5.3.1 General Style of Deformation on Reverse Fault in Section
    5.3.2 Trenching Techniques
    5.3.3 Structure and Evolution of Reverse Fault Scarps
    5.3.4 Structure and Evolution of Thrust Fault scarps
    5.3.5 Stratigraphic Bracketed Offset
    5.3.6 Fault-Onlap Sedimentary Sequences
    5.3.7 Summary of Stratigraphic Evidence for Thrust Paleoearthquakes
    5.3.8 Distinguishing Creep Displacement from Episodic Displacement
    5.4 Dating Paleoearthquakes
    5.4.1 Direct Dating of the Exposed Fault Plane
    5.4.2 Direct dating via Scarp Degradation Modeling
    5.4.3 Age Estimates from Soil Development on Fault Scarps
    5.4.4 Bracketing the Age of Faulting by Dating Displaced Deposits
    5.5 Interpreting the Paleoseismic History by Retrodeformation
    5.5.1 Rigid-Block Retrodeformation
    5.5.2 Plastic Retrodeformations
    5.6 Distinguishing Seismogenic from Non-Seismogenic Reverse Faults
    5.6.1 Tectonic, but Nonseismogenic Reverse Faults
    5.6.1.1 Flexural Slip Faults
    5.6.1.2 Bending-Moment Faults
    5.6.2 Nontectonic, but Seismogenic Reverse Faults
    5.6.3 Nontectonic and Nonseismogenic Reverse Faults
    5.6.3.1 Landslide Faults
    5.6.3.2 Subsidence/collapse Faults
    5.7 Hazards Due to Reverse Surface Faulting
    5.8 Paleoseismic Evidence of Coseismic Folding
    5.8.1 Geomorphic Evidence of Active Surface Folding
    5.8.1.1 Fluvial Datums for Detecting Coseismic Fold Growth
    5.8.2 Stratigraphic Evidence of Active Surface Folding
    5.8.3 Assessing Seismic Hazards from Blind Thrusts
    5.8.3.1 Where?
    5.8.3.2 How Big? (Mmax)
    5.8.3.3 How Often? (recurrence, slip rate)
    5.9 Paleoseismology of Subduction Zones
    5.9.1 Introduction
    5.9.2 Segmentation of Subduction Zones
    5.9.3 Surface Faulting: Upper Plate versus Plate-Boundary Structures
    5.9.4 Historic Subduction Earthquakes as Modern Analogs for Paleoearthquakes
    5.9.5 The Earthquake Deformation Cycle in Subduction Zones
    5.10 Late Quaternary Sea Level
    5.10.1 Sea-Level Index Points along Erosional Shorelines
    5.10.2 Sea-Level Index Points along Depositional Shorelines
    5.11 The Coseismic Earthquake horizon
    5.11.1 Characteristics of Coseismic Earthquake horizons
    5.11.2 Earthquake-Killed Trees
    5.11.3 Tsunami Deposits
    5.11.4 Summary of Stratigraphic Evidence for Paleoseismicity
    5.12 Paleoseismic Evidence of Coseismic Uplift
    5.12.1 Alaska
    5.12.2 Cascadia Subduction Zone
    5.13 Paleoseismic Evidence of Coseismic Subsidence
    5.13.1 Alaska
    5.13.2 Cascadia Subduction Zone
    5.13.3 Ambiguities in Characterizing Subduction Paleoearthquakes

CHAPTER 6: PALEOSEISMOLOGY OF STRIKE-SLIP ENVIRONMENTS (J.P. McCalpin, T.K. Rockwell, R.J. Weldon)

    6.1 INTRODUCTION
    6.1.1 Styles, Scales, and Environments of Deformation
    6.1.1.1 Environments of Strike-slip Deformation
    6.1.1.2 General Style of Deformation on Strike-Slip Faults; Plan View
    6.1.1.3 General Style of Deformation on Strike-Slip Faults; Section View
    6.1.1.4 Defining Slip Components
    6.1.2 Segmentation of Strike-Slip faults
    6.1.3 The Earthquake Deformation Cycle of Strike-Slip faults
    6.1.4 Historic Analog Earthquakes
    6.2 GEOMORPHIC EVIDENCE OF PALEOEARTHQUAKES
    6.2.1 Landforms Used as Piercing Points
    6.2.1.1 Offset Terraces
    6.2.1.2 Offset Stream Channels
    6.2.1.3 Offset Alluvial Fans
    6.2.1.4 Offset landslides
    6.2.1.5 Offset Ridges and Valleys
    6.2.2 Using Lateral Offsets to Calculate Long-Term Slip Rates
    6.2.2.1 Slip Rate Studies
    6.2.3 Spatial and Temporal Variations in Surface Displacement
    6.2.3.1 Variability of Displacement Along Strike In a Single Rupture
    6.2.3.2 Variability of Displacement At a Point
    6.2.4 Reconstructing Individual Earthquake Displacements
    6.2.4.1 Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Lateral Offsets
    6.3 STRATIGRAPHIC EVIDENCE OF PALEOEARTHQUAKES
    6.3.1 General Style of Deformation on Strike-Slip Faults in Section
    6.3.2 Sedimentation and Weathering in Strike-Slip Fault Zones
    6.3.2.1 The Sag Pond Environment
    6.3.2.2 The Intermittent Stream Environment
    6.3.3 Trenching Techniques
    6.3.4 Stratigraphic Indicators of Paleoearthquakes
    6.3.4.1 Upward Fault Terminations
    6.3.4.2 Downward Growth in Displacement
    6.3.4.3 Downward Increase in Thickness/Facies Contrasts
    6.3.4.4 Fissures and Sand Blows
    6.3.4.5 Angular Unconformities
    6.3.4.6 Colluvial Wedges
    6.3.4.7 Collapse Features
    6.3.4.8 Example from the San Andreas Fault at Wrightwood, California
    6.3.5 Measuring Lateral Displacements from Stratigraphic Data
    6.3.5.1 Whittier Fault Example (Most of Misalignment Caused by Diversion)
    6.3.5.2 Rose Canyon Example (Most of Misalignment Caused by Tectonic Offset)
    6.3.6 Distinguishing Creep Displacement from Episodic Displacement
    6.4 DATING PALEOEARTHQUAKES
    6.5 INTERPRETING THE PALEOSEISMIC HISTORY BY RETRODEFORMATION
    6.5.1 Retrodeforming the Trench Log
    6.6 DISTINGUISHING SEISMOGENIC FROM NON-SEISMOGENIC STRIKE-SLIP FAULTS
    6.6.1 Tectonic, But Nonseismogenic Normal Faults
    6.6.2 Nontectonic and Nonseismogenic Normal Faults

CHAPTER 7: USING LIQUEFACTION-INDUCED AND OTHER SOFT-SEDIMENT FEATURES FOR PALEOSEISMIC ANALYSIS (S.F. Obermeier)

    7.1 INTRODUCTION
    7.2 OVERVIEW OF THE FORMATION OF LIQUEFACTION-INDUCED FEATURES
    7.2.1 Process of Liquefaction and Fluidization
    7.2.2 Factors Affecting Liquefaction Susceptibility and Effects of Fluidization
    7.3 CRITERIA FOR AN EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED LIQUEFACTION ORIGIN
    7.4 HISTORIC AND PREHISTORIC LIQUEFACTION-SELECTED STUDIES
    7.4.1 Coastal South Carolina
    7.4.1.1 Characteristics of the Craters
    7.4.1.2 Prehistoric Seismicity
    7.4.2 New Madrid Seismic Zone
    7.4.2.1 Characteristics of Venting and Fracturing at the Ground Surface
    7.4.2.2 Characteristics of Sand Blows and Dikes in Sectional View
    7.4.2.3 Characteristics of Sills in Sectional View
    7.4.2.4 Paleoliquefaction Studies
    7.4.3 Wabash Valley Seismic Zone
    7.4.3.1 Field Techniques
    7.4.3.2 Characteristics of Liquefaction Features
    7.4.3.3 Ages of Dikes and Epicentral Locations
    7.4.3.4 Evidence for Seismic Origin
    7.4.3.5 Paleoseismic Implications
    7.4.4 Coastal Washington State
    7.4.4.1 Columbia River Features
    7.4.4.2 Strength of Prehistoric Shaking
    7.4.4.3 Ancient Marine-Terrace Features
    7.5 FEATURES GENERALLY OF NONSEISMIC OR UNKNOWN ORIGIN
    7.5.1 Terrestrial Disturbance Features
    7.5.2 Features Formed in Subaqueous Environments
    7.5.2.1 Processes and Associated Deformations
    7.5.2.1.1 Factors in development of load structures
    7.5.2.1.2 Soft-sediment deformations, and liquefaction and fluidization
    7.5.2.2 Paleoseismic Criteria and Selected Field Study Examples
    7.5.3 Features Formed by Weathering
    7.5.4 Features Formed in a Periglacial Environment
    7.6 ESTIMATION OF STRENGTH OF PALEOEARTHQUAKES
    7.6.1 Association with Modified Mercalli Intensity
    7.6.2 Magnitude Bound
    7.6.3 Engineering Based Procedures
    7.6.4 Overview of Estimates of Magnitude
    7.6.5 Negative Evidence

CHAPTER 8: USING LANDSLIDES FOR PALEOSEISMIC ANALYSIS (R.W. Jibson)

    8.1 INTRODUCTION
    8.2 IDENTIFYING LANDSLIDES
    8.3 DETERMINING LANDSLIDE AGES
    8.3.1 Historical Methods
    8.3.2 Dendrochronology
    8.3.3 Radiometric and Cosmogenic Dating
    8.3.4 Lichenometry
    8.3.5 Weathering Rinds
    8.3.6 Pollen Analysis
    8.3.7 Geomorphic Analysis
    8.4 INTERPRETING AN EARTHQUAKE ORIGIN FOR LANDSLIDES
    8.4.1 Regional Analysis of Landslides
    8.4.2 Landslide Morphology
    8.4.3 Sackungen
    8.4.4 Sediment From Earthquake-Triggered Landslides
    8.4.5 Landslides That Straddle Faults
    8.4.6 Precariously Balanced Rocks
    8.4.7 Speleoseismology
    8.4.8 Summary
    8.5 ANALYSIS OF THE SEISMIC ORIGIN OF A LANDSLIDE
    8.5.1 Physical Setting of Landslides in the New Madrid Seismic Zone
    8.5.2 Geotechnical Investigation
    8.5.3 Static (Aseismic) Slope-Stability Analysis
    8.5.4 Dynamic (Seismic) Slope-Stability Analysis
    8.5.4.1 Undrained Static Factor of Safety
    8.5.4.2 Thrust Angle
    8.5.4.3 Critical Acceleration
    8.5.4.4 Earthquake Acceleration-Time History
    8.5.4.5 Estimation of the Newmark Landslide Displacement
    8.5.4.6 Summary
    8.5.5 Analysis of Unknown Seismic Conditions
    8.6 INTERPRETING RESULTS OF PALEOSEISMIC LANDSLIDE STUDIES
    8.6.1 Characteristics of Landslides Triggered by Earthquakes
    8.6.1.1 Minimum Earthquake Magnitudes That Trigger Landslides
    8.6.1.2 Minimum Shaking Intensities That Trigger Landslides
    8.6.1.3 Areas Affected by Earthquake-Triggered Landslides
    8.6.1.4 Maximum Distance of Landslides from Earthquake Sources
    8.6.2 Interpreting Earthquake Magnitude and Location
    8.7 FINAL COMMENTS

CHAPTER 9: APPLICATION OF PALEOSEISMIC DATA TO SEISMIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND NEOTECTONIC RESEARCH (J.P. McCalpin)

    9.1 INTRODUCTION
    9.1.1 Seismic Hazard Assessments; A Brief Description
    9.1.1.1 Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment (DSHA)
    9.1.1.2 Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA)
    9.1.1.3 DSHA or PSHA; Which is Better?
    9.2 ESTIMATING PALEOEARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE
    9.2.1 Methods Using Primary Evidence
    9.2.1.1 Surface-Rupture Length Method
    9.2.1.2 Maximum Displacement Method
    9.2.1.3 Average Displacement Method
    9.2.1.4 Spatial Variations in Displacement-Per-Event Along Strike
    9.2.1.5 Length Times Displacement Method
    9.2.1.6 Rupture-Area Method
    9.2.1.7 Seismic-Moment Method
    9.2.2 Methods Using Secondary Evidence
    9.3 PALEOSEISMIC SLIP RATES AND RECURRENCE
    9.3.1 Constructing Slip History Diagrams; Temporal Variations in Displacement-At-A-Point
    9.3.2 Slip Rates
    9.3.3 Slip-Along-Strike Diagrams; Displaying Both Spatial and Temporal Variations in Displacement Along Strike
    9.3.4 Recurrence Estimation Using Slip Rates
    9.3.5 Recurrence Estimation Using Numerical Dating of Paleoearthquakes
    9.3.6 Constructing Space-Time Diagrams
    9.3.7 Interpreting Space-Time Diagrams for Contemporaneity of Paleoearthquakes and Multi-Segment Ruptures
    9.4 FAULT SEGMENTATION
    9.4.1 Earthquake Segments
    9.4.2 Fault Segments
    9.4.3 Segment Boundaries
    9.4.4 Behavior of Segment Boundaries
    9.4.5 Segmentation of Historic Surface Ruptures
    9.4.6 Is the Segmentation Concept Useful?
    9.5 MODELS OF FAULT BEHAVIOR
    9.5.1 Variable Slip Models
    9.5.2 Uniform Slip Models
    9.5.2.1 Uniform Slip Model
    9.5.2.2 Coupled Model
    9.5.2.3 Characteristic Earthquake Model
    9.5.2.4 Overlap Model
    9.6 MODELS OF EARTHQUAKE RECURRENCE
    9.6.1 Statistical Analysis of Paleoearthquake Chronologies
    9.6.1.1 Standard PDFs Fit to Recurrence Data
    9.6.2 Temporal Clustering, Fault "Contagion", and Causative Mechanisms for Irregular Recurrence
    9.6.2.1 Causative Mechanisms for Variable Recurrence and temporal Clustering on a Single Fault
    9.6.3 Using Recurrence Data to Estimate Conditional Probability of Future Rupture
    9.7 USE OF PALEOSEISMIC DATA IN DETERMINISTIC AND PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSES
    9.7.1 Deterministic SHAs
    9.7.2 Probabilistic SHAs as National Seismic Hazard Maps
    9.7.3 Probabilistic SHAs for Sites and regions; The Art of Logic Trees
    9.7.3.1 Determining the Seismotectonic Setting
    9.7.3.2 Specifying Fault Rupture and Fault Interaction Scenarios
    9.7.3.3 Deciding Whether a Fault is Seismogenic
    9.7.3.4 Specifying Source Parameters for Individual Faults
    9.7.3.5 Adding "Memory" to a PSHA
    9.7.4 Probabilistic Fault Displacement Hazard
    9.8 SITE STUDIES FOR SURFACE RUPTURE
    9.8.1 Determine Whether Quaternary Faults Exist at a Site
    9.8.2 Accurately Identify and Locate the Faults
    9.8.3 Determine the Age of Most Recent Surface Rupture and Activity Class of the Faults
    9.8.3.1 Is Fault Hazard Really Proportional to Age of Latest Rupture?
    9.8.4 Using Paleoseismic Data on Displacement for Recommending Setback Distances
    9.9 PALEOSEISMIC DATA APPLIED TO NEOTECTONIC RESEARCH
    9.10 CURRENT ISSUES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS IN PALEOSEISMOLOGY
    9.10.1 Recognizing Paleoearthquakes
    9.10.2 Estimating Displacement/Magnitude
    9.10.3 Estimating Age/Recurrence
    9.10.4 Testing Fault Models
    9.10.5 Scientific Policy